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Title: Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. Themore » waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2]
  1. (Robert P.)
  2. (Michael L.)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
977784
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-04-5231
TRN: US201012%%723
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Submitted to: Caribbean Tsunami Workshop Proceedings
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Sponsoring Org:
DOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; AIR; BASALT; CONES; EQUATIONS OF STATE; EXPLOSIVES; GAS HYDRATES; GEOMETRY; LANDSLIDES; MISSILES; SHIELDS; SUBMARINES; TRANSIENTS; TSUNAMIS; WATER; WATER WAVES