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Title: Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in themore » presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.« less
Authors:
 [1]
  1. (Bolingbrook, IL)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
866171
Report Number(s):
US 4649015
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Patent
Research Org:
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
monitoring; liquid-cooled; nuclear; fission; reactor; monitoring; detecting; changes; liquid; levels; various; regions; water-cooled; nuclear; power; reactor; viz; downcomer; core; inlet; outlet; plenums; head; detecting; changes; density; liquid; regions; plurality; gamma; radiation; detectors; arranged; vertically; outside; reactor; vessel; collimator; means; detector; limits; gamma-radiation; receives; emitting; isolated; regions; vessel; excess; neutrons; produced; fission; reaction; captured; water; coolant; steel; reactor; walls; fuel; control; structures; vessel; neutron; capture; steel; generates; gamma; radiation; energy; level; 5-12; mev; neutron; capture; water; provides; energy; level; approximately; mev; neutron; capture; fission; fuel; cladding; provides; energy; level; mev; intensity; neutron; capture; changes; significantly; water-metal; interface; comparative; analysis; adjacent; gamma; detectors; senses; changes; normal; condition; liquid; coolant; advise; changes; presence; density; coolant; specific; regions; gamma; detectors; sense; fission-product; gas; accumulation; reactor; head; advise; failure; fuel-pin; cladding; water-cooled nuclear; power reactor; neutrons produced; comparative analysis; fission reactor; liquid coolant; product gas; energy level; energy level; energy level; nuclear power; reactor vessel; neutron capture; neutron capture; neutron capture; neutron capture; liquid level; radiation detector; gamma radiation; gamma radiation; radiation detectors; cooled nuclear; cooled nuclear; detecting changes; detecting changes; nuclear fission; reactor walls; outlet plenum; water coolant; reactor wall; reactor head; normal condition; gamma detector; gamma detector; metal interface; liquid levels /376/976/