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Title: Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx.more » 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5328605
Report Number(s):
BM-IC-8819
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Bureau of Mines, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Salt Lake City Research Center
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CITRATE PROCESS; CHEMISTRY; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; DESULFURIZATION; FLUE GAS; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; IODOMETRY; ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODE ANALYSIS; ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFATES; SULFIDES; THIONATES; THIOSULFATES; TITRATION; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; GASEOUS WASTES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POWER PLANTS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SPECTRA; THERMAL POWER PLANTS; WASTES 010800* -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Waste Management; 200202 -- Fossil-Fueled Power Plants-- Waste Management-- Noxious Gas & Particulate Emissions; 400102 -- Chemical & Spectral Procedures