skip to main content

Title: Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.
Authors:
 [1]
  1. Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
525996
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Medical Genetics; Journal Volume: 69; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: PBD: 31 Mar 1997
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS; GENETICS; SEX DEPENDENCE; EPIDEMIOLOGY; MORPHOGENESIS; EMBRYOS; HEREDITARY DISEASES; ONTOGENESIS; SEX; HUMAN X CHROMOSOME