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Title: Use of post-Chernobyl data from Norway to validate the long-term exposure pathway models in the accident consequence code MACCS

This paper describes a task performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), consisting of using post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in the NRC's program for probabilistic risk analysis, level 3, of the MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Because of unfortunate combinations of weather conditions, the levels of Chernobyl fallout in parts of Norway were quite high, with large areas contaminated to more than 100 kBq/m[sup 2] of radioactive cesium. Approximately 6% of the total amount of radioactive cesium released from Chernobyl is deposited on Norwegian territory, according to a countrywide survey performed by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene. Accordingly, a very large monitoring effort was carried out in Norway, and some of the results of this effort have provided important new insights into the ways in which radioactive cesium behaves in the environment. In addition to collection and evaluation of post-Chernobyl monitoring results, some experiments were also performed as part of the task. Some experiments performed pre-Chernobyl were also relevant, and some conclusions could be drawn from these. In most connections, the data availablemore » show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is inadequate are, however, also pointed out in the paper.« less
Authors:
 [1]
  1. (Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5065369
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nuclear Technology; (United States); Journal Volume: 105:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE PATHWAY; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; M CODES; BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; DATA ANALYSIS; FALLOUT; RADIATION MONITORING; REACTOR SAFETY; RISK ASSESSMENT; ACCIDENTS; COMPUTER CODES; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MONITORING; POWER REACTORS; REACTORS; SAFETY; THERMAL REACTORS; WATER COOLED REACTORS 220900* -- Nuclear Reactor Technology-- Reactor Safety; 220200 -- Nuclear Reactor Technology-- Components & Accessories