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Title: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).
Authors:
 [1]
  1. ed.
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
457159
Report Number(s):
CONF-961089--
ON: DE97004100; TRN: 98:008342
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Beneficial Reuse `96: 4. annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal, Knoxville, TN (United States), 22-24 Oct 1996; Other Information: PBD: Feb 1997; Related Information: Is Part Of Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal; PB: 546 p.
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY; CONTAMINATION; WASTE DISPOSAL; PETROLEUM INDUSTRY; RADIATION PROTECTION; RADIOMETRIC SURVEYS; COMPLIANCE