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Title: Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [2]
  1. CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States)
  2. Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States) [and others
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
447170
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM--13305
ON: DE97050722; TRN: 97:001173-0011
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Aug 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of In situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media fate/transport, in situ control technologies, and risk reduction; PB: 318 p.
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; NONAQUEOUS SOLVENTS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; SOILS; FLUID INJECTION; ORGANIC WASTES; MISCIBLE-PHASE DISPLACEMENT; SOLUBILITY; DESORPTION; COST; EFFICIENCY; CLAYS