Reclaimed water for cooling tower make-up: Concerns, monitoring and proven treatment
The California state legislature has mandated that reclaimed water (Title 22 water) be utilized for industrial applications in order to conserve the state`s fresh water supply. Because cooling systems are typically the largest consumers of water in an industrial plant, cooling tower make-up is the most likely candidate for use of reclaimed water. Although reclaimed water potentially offers many environmental, political, and economical benefits, its use poses many challenges to the successful treatment of an industrial cooling system. This paper presents the major concerns associated with the use of reclaimed water as cooling tower make-up, identifies the required monitoring and control schemes, and discusses the treatment results at the first California oil refinery using reclaimed water (treated Title 22 water) for cooling tower make-up.
- Betz Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States)
- Chevron USA Products Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)
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- Conference: National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) annual corrosion conference and exposition: water and waste water industries, Denver, CO (United States), 24-29 Mar 1996; Other Information: PBD: 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of Corrosion/96 conference papers; PB: 6615 p.
- NACE International, Houston, TX (United States)
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- United States
- 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COOLING TOWERS; RESOURCE CONSERVATION; FEEDWATER; AMMONIA; BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND; CHLORIDES; DEPOSITS; WATER TREATMENT; CORROSION INHIBITORS; BIOLOGICAL FOULING; PHOSPHATES; STRESS CORROSION; CRACKS; PROCESS CONTROL; PH VALUE