skip to main content

Title: Initial recommendations for restricting gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of radionuclides for on-site inspections

The US paper "Radionuclide Sampling, Sample Handling and Analytical Laboratory Equipment for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspections," CTBT/PC/V/OSI/WSII/PR/29 identified the radionuclides of interest to an OS1 as 144Ce, 147Nd, 141Ce, 149Ba140La), 95 Zr(95Nb), 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, 135gXe, and 37Ar. All of these nuclides (except 37Ar) can be measured via some form of conventional or coincidence-based gamma-ray spectrometry. The non-gaseous radionuclides [144Ce, 147Nd, 141Ce, 140Ba(140La), and 95Zr(95Nb)] can be measured via conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a shielded, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The gaseous radionuclides 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe are best measured (after separation from their homologous elements) via a gamma & beta/electron coincidence technique such as that described in CTBT/WGB/TL-11/5 which could utilize either a HPGe or low-resolution (NaI(TI)) gamma-ray spectrometer to detect the gamma-ray/x-ray and a plastic scintillator to detect the beta particle/electron from the decay of the various Xe isotopes. The US paper CTBT/PC/V/IOSI/WSII/PR/29 (and other papers) identified a need to limit the information that can be extracted from high-resolution gamma-ray spectra to ensure that only information relevant to an OSI is accessible. The term "blinding" has been used to describe the need to limit the information available to the Inspection Team from the high-resolution gamma-raymore » measurement. A better term is "measurement restriction"; the need for restricting the information is particularly relevant to conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements, but not to the gamma & beta/electron coincidence-type measurements envisioned for Xe isotopes because the separation process for these radionuclides will likely eliminate any other observables. The purpose of this paper is to define functional requirements for restricting measurements via conventional high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems to ensure that only the nuclides of interest to an OSI can be identified and quantified. Options discussed below include 1) acquisition and analysis of the entire high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum combined with a limited reporting mechanism, and 2) restricting of the gamma-ray spectrum prior to acquisition and analysis/reporting based upon only the limited portion of the spectrum. It is well recognized that the results should be as accurate as possible, but the analytical work must be performed in a manner consistent with the purposes of an OSI.« less
Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
3411
Report Number(s):
UCRL-ID-132390
GJ1200000; ON: DE00003411
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-Eng-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Defense Programs (DP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
07 ISOTOPE AND RADIATION SOURCE TECHNOLOGY; Radionuclides; Gamma Spectrometers; On-Site Inspection