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Title: Influence of water quality on silver toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and water fleas (Daphnia magna)

Toxicity bioassays were conducted to quantify water quality conditions under which silver, as silver nitrate, is toxic to Oncorhynchus mykiss. Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna. Bioassays for P. promelas and D. magna were conducted as static replacement tests, whereas a flow-through bioassay system was modified and used for O. mykiss. Results from 96-h toxicity bioassays for O. mykiss indicated that chloride, hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) protected against silver toxicosis, with DOC affording the highest protective effects. For P. promelas and D. magna, little protection was provided by increased CaCo+O{sub 3} alone, whereas DOC had a major ameliorating influence on measured silver toxicity. Lower concentrations of chloride had little effect on reducing silver nitrate toxicity. Dissolved organic carbon was more important than hardness for predicting the toxicity of ionic silver in natural waters to O. mykiss, P. promelas, and D. magna. Similarly, DOC significantly reduced silver nitrate toxicity to trout, whereas Cl{sup {minus}} and hardness had only a minor protective effect. However, Cl{sup {minus}}/DOC mixtures showed a greater-than-additive protective effect. Thus, the authors suggest that incorporating an organic carbon coefficient into the silver criterion equation will enhance the criterion values for site specificity.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
318845
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: PBD: Jan 1999
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; WATER POLLUTION; SILVER; TOXICITY; TROUT; FATHEAD MINNOW; DAPHNIA; WATER CHEMISTRY; CHLORIDES