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Title: BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep risemore » at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to 15,894 at 100 Myr (∼8%). The total binary fraction among freefloating BDs is 0.43, higher than indicated by current observations, which, however, are still incomplete. Also, the gradual breakup of higher-order multiples leads to many more singles, thus lowering the binary fraction. The main threat to newly born triple systems is internal instabilities, not external perturbations. At 1 Myr there are 1325 BD binaries still bound to a star, corresponding to 0.66% of the simulations, but only 253 (0.13%) are stable on timescales >100 Myr. These simulations indicate that dynamical interactions in newborn triple systems of stellar embryos embedded in and accreting from a cloud core naturally form a population of freefloating BD binaries, and this mechanism may constitute a significant pathway for the formation of BD binaries.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
  2. Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22520200
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BINARY STARS; COSMIC GASES; DIAGRAMS; DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; DWARF STARS; PROTOSTARS; STAR ACCRETION; STAR EVOLUTION