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Title: NuSTAR SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY REFLECTION FROM NGC 1068

We report on high-energy X-ray observations of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with NuSTAR, which provide the best constraints to date on its >10 keV spectral shape. The NuSTAR data are consistent with those from past and current instruments to within cross-calibration uncertainties, and we find no strong continuum or line variability over the past two decades, which is in line with its X-ray classification as a reflection-dominated Compton-thick active galactic nucleus. The combined NuSTAR, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift BAT spectral data set offers new insights into the complex secondary emission seen instead of the completely obscured transmitted nuclear continuum. The critical combination of the high signal-to-noise NuSTAR data and the decomposition of the nuclear and extranuclear emission with Chandra allow us to break several model degeneracies and greatly aid physical interpretation. When modeled as a monolithic (i.e., a single N{sub H}) reflector, none of the common Compton reflection models are able to match the neutral fluorescence lines and broad spectral shape of the Compton reflection hump without requiring unrealistic physical parameters (e.g., large Fe overabundances, inconsistent viewing angles, or poor fits to the spatially resolved spectra). A multi-component reflector with three distinct column densities (e.g., with best-fitmore » values of N{sub H} of 1.4 × 10{sup 23}, 5.0 × 10{sup 24}, and 10{sup 25} cm{sup −2}) provides a more reasonable fit to the spectral lines and Compton hump, with near-solar Fe abundances. In this model, the higher N{sub H} component provides the bulk of the flux to the Compton hump, while the lower N{sub H} component produces much of the line emission, effectively decoupling two key features of Compton reflection. We find that ≈30% of the neutral Fe Kα line flux arises from >2″ (≈140 pc) and is clearly extended, implying that a significant fraction (and perhaps most) of the <10 keV reflected component arises from regions well outside a parsec-scale torus. These results likely have ramifications for the interpretation of Compton-thick spectra from observations with poorer signal-to-noise and/or more distant objects.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ;  [8] ; ;  [9] ; ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [14] more »; « less
  1. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)
  2. EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile)
  3. Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  4. Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
  5. ASDC-ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy)
  6. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
  7. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
  9. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  10. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  11. DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)
  12. INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
  13. Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
  14. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22518778
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 812; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CALIBRATION; CLASSIFICATION; ELEMENT ABUNDANCE; FLUORESCENCE; GALAXY NUCLEI; IRON; KEV RANGE; LIMITING VALUES; NOISE; REFLECTION; SECONDARY EMISSION; SEYFERT GALAXIES; SIGNALS; STAR CLUSTERS; X RADIATION; X-RAY GALAXIES