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Title: DEEPLY EMBEDDED PROTOSTELLAR POPULATION IN THE 20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD OF THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE

We report the discovery of a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates in the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud, one of the massive molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way, using interferometric submillimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O maser observations. The submillimeter continuum emission shows five 1 pc scale clumps, each of which further fragments into several 0.1 pc scale cores. We identify 17 dense cores, among which 12 are gravitationally bound. Among the 18 H{sub 2}O masers detected, 13 coincide with the cores and probably trace outflows emanating from the protostars. There are also 5 gravitationally bound dense cores without H{sub 2}O maser detection. In total, the 13 masers and 5 cores may represent 18 protostars with spectral types later than B1 or potentially growing more massive stars at earlier evolutionary stages, given the non-detection in the centimeter radio continuum. In combination with previous studies of CH{sub 3}OH masers, we conclude that the star formation in this cloud is at an early evolutionary phase, before the presence of any significant ionizing or heating sources. Our findings indicate that star formation in this cloud may be triggered by a tidal compression as it approaches pericenter, similarmore » to the case of G0.253+0.016 but with a higher star formation rate, and demonstrate that high angular resolution, high-sensitivity maser, and submillimeter observations are promising techniques to unveil deeply embedded star formation in the CMZ.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  3. Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
  4. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)
  5. Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22518674
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 814; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CLOUDS; COMPRESSION; DETECTION; HEATING; MASERS; METHANOL; MILKY WAY; POTENTIALS; PROTOSTARS; RESOLUTION; SENSITIVITY; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; WATER; ZONES