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Title: Analysis of 440 GeV proton beam–matter interaction experiments at the High Radiation Materials test facility at CERN

In a previous paper [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we presented the first results on beam–matter interaction experiments that were carried out at the High Radiation Materials test facility at CERN. In these experiments, extended cylindrical targets of solid copper were irradiated with beam of 440 GeV protons delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The beam comprised of a large number of high intensity proton bunches, each bunch having a length of 0.5 ns with a 50 ns gap between two neighboring bunches, while the length of this entire bunch train was about 7 μs. These experiments established the existence of the hydrodynamic tunneling phenomenon the first time. Detailed numerical simulations of these experiments were also carried out which were reported in detail in another paper [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 063112 (2014)]. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental measurements and the simulation results that validate our previous simulations done using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam of 7 TeV protons [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 15, 051003 (2012)]. According to these simulations, the range of the full LHC proton beam and the hadronic shower can be increased by more than an order ofmore » magnitude due to the hydrodynamic tunneling, compared to that of a single proton. This effect is of considerable importance for the design of machine protection system for hadron accelerators such as SPS, LHC, and Future Circular Collider. Recently, using metal cutting technology, the targets used in these experiments have been dissected into finer pieces for visual and microscopic inspection in order to establish the precise penetration depth of the protons and the corresponding hadronic shower. This, we believe will be helpful in studying the very important phenomenon of hydrodynamic tunneling in a more quantitative manner. The details of this experimental work together with a comparison with the numerical simulations are presented in this paper.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. CERN-AB, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany)
  2. CERN-AB, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
  3. CERN-AB, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and TU Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
  4. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
  5. Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)
  6. E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22494716
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BEAM BUNCHING; CERN; CERN LHC; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COPPER; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; GEV RANGE; INTERACTIONS; MATERIALS TESTING; PENETRATION DEPTH; PROTON BEAMS; TARGETS; TEST FACILITIES; TEV RANGE; TUNNEL EFFECT