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Title: Mesoscale evolution of voids and microstructural changes in HMX-based explosives during heating through the β-δ phase transition

HMX-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501 were heated through the β-δ phase transition. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and molecular diffraction were simultaneously recorded as the HMX was heated. Mesoscale voids and structure dramatically change promptly with the β-δ phase transition, rather than with other thermal effects. Also, x-ray induced damage, observed in the USAXS, occurs more readily at elevated temperatures; as such, the dose was reduced to mitigate this effect. Optical microscopy performed during a similar heating cycle gives an indication of changes on longer length scales, while x-ray microtomography, performed before and after heating, shows the character of extensive microstructural damage resulting from the temperature cycle and solid-state phase transition.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
  2. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22494715
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DAMAGE; DOSES; HEATING; MICROSTRUCTURE; OPTICAL MICROSCOPY; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; SOLIDS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION