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Title: Electrochemical strain microscopy time spectroscopy: Model and experiment on LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}

Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) can provide useful information on ionic diffusion in solids at the local scale. In this work, a finite element model of ESM measurements was developed and applied to commercial lithium manganese (III,IV) oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) particles. ESM time spectroscopy was used, where a direct current (DC) voltage pulse locally disturbs the spatial distribution of mobile ions. After the pulse is off, the ions return to equilibrium at a rate which depends on the Li diffusivity in the material. At each stage, Li diffusivity is monitored by measuring the ESM response to a small alternative current (AC) voltage simultaneously applied to the tip. The model separates two different mechanisms, one linked to the response to DC bias and another one related to the AC excitation. It is argued that the second one is not diffusion-driven but is rather a contribution of the sum of several mechanisms with at least one depending on the lithium ion concentration explaining the relaxation process. With proper fitting of this decay, diffusion coefficients of lithium hosts could be extracted. Additionally, the effect of phase transition in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is taken into account, explaining some experimental observations.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [4] ;  [7]
  1. Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhoehe (Germany)
  2. (Germany)
  3. Institute of Mechanics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)
  4. Department of Physics & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
  5. Institute of Materials Science, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)
  6. Institute of Applied Mechanics (CE), Chair I, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
  7. (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22494704
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; DIFFUSION; DIRECT CURRENT; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; EXCITATION; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; LITHIUM IONS; LITHIUM OXIDES; MANGANESE OXIDES; MICROSCOPY; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SPECTROSCOPY