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Title: Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes,more » solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes, promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of next-generation high-energy batteries. Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been proved to be a good candidate for solid electrolyte, due to its easy in preparation, low cost, high melting temperature and good compatibility with the electrode materials. In the present work, Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been prepared by wet chemical reaction, a simple method with the advantage of recycling a waste product H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The crystal structure has been characterized by both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The use of neutron scattering plays important role on observing the light atoms such as lithium ion. The x-ray diffraction results showed the crystal structure of orthorhombic phase P m n 21 (31), that belongs to the β-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, with the lattice parameters are a = 6.123872, b = 5.250211, c = 4.876378. The conductivity of β-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was around 10{sup −8} S/cm. Furthermore, the future application of the solid electrolyte layer in lithium ion battery will also be considered. It is concluded that the used of local resources on producing the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery will give more added values to the researches and national industry.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia)
  2. Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22494599
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1710; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: NNS2015: 6. nanoscience and nanotechnology symposium, Surakarta (Indonesia), 4-5 Nov 2015; Other Information: (c) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANODES; CARGO; CATHODES; COMBUSTION; COST; ENERGY STORAGE; GRIDS; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; LITHIUM ION BATTERIES; LITHIUM PHOSPHATES; MANUFACTURING; MELTING POINTS; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; ORTHORHOMBIC LATTICES; RECYCLING; SAFETY; SOLID ELECTROLYTES; WASTES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION