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Title: Vapor shielding models and the energy absorbed by divertor targets during transient events

The erosion of divertor targets caused by high heat fluxes during transients is a serious threat to ITER operation, as it is going to be the main factor determining the divertor lifetime. Under the influence of extreme heat fluxes, the surface temperature of plasma facing components can reach some certain threshold, leading to an onset of intense material evaporation. The latter results in formation of cold dense vapor and secondary plasma cloud. This layer effectively absorbs the energy of the incident plasma flow, turning it into its own kinetic and internal energy and radiating it. This so called vapor shielding is a phenomenon that may help mitigating the erosion during transient events. In particular, the vapor shielding results in saturation of energy (per unit surface area) accumulated by the target during single pulse of heat load at some level E{sub max}. Matching this value is one of the possible tests to verify complicated numerical codes, developed to calculate the erosion rate during abnormal events in tokamaks. The paper presents three very different models of vapor shielding, demonstrating that E{sub max} depends strongly on the heat pulse duration, thermodynamic properties, and evaporation energy of the irradiated target material. While its dependencemore » on the other shielding details such as radiation capabilities of material and dynamics of the vapor cloud is logarithmically weak. The reason for this is a strong (exponential) dependence of the target material evaporation rate, and therefore the “strength” of vapor shield on the target surface temperature. As a result, the influence of the vapor shielding phenomena details, such as radiation transport in the vapor cloud and evaporated material dynamics, on the E{sub max} is virtually completely masked by the strong dependence of the evaporation rate on the target surface temperature. However, the very same details define the amount of evaporated particles, needed to provide an effective shielding to the target, and, therefore, strongly influence resulting erosion rate. Thus, E{sub max} cannot be used for validation of shielding models and codes, aimed at the target material erosion calculations.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)
  2. National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22493882
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; DIVERTORS; EROSION; EVAPORATION; FIRST WALL; HEAT FLUX; HEATING LOAD; ITER TOKAMAK; PLASMA; PULSES; RADIATION TRANSPORT; SHIELDING; SURFACE AREA; TARGETS; THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES; TRANSIENTS; VAPORS