skip to main content

Title: “Plug-and-Play” potentials: Investigating quantum effects in (H{sub 2}){sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene

Quantum and anharmonic effects are investigated in (H{sub 2}){sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene, a model for hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks and carbon-based materials, using rigid-body diffusion Monte Carlo (RBDMC) simulations. The potential-energy surface (PES) is calculated as a modified Shepard interpolation of M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) electronic structure data. The RBDMC simulations yield zero-point energies (ZPE) and probability density histograms that describe the ground-state nuclear wavefunction. Binding a second H{sub 2} molecule to the H{sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene complex increases the ZPE of the system by 5.6 kJ mol{sup −1} to 17.6 kJ mol{sup −1}. This ZPE is 42% of the total electronic binding energy of (H{sub 2}){sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene and cannot be neglected. Our best estimate of the 0 K binding enthalpy of the second H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene is 7.7 kJ mol{sup −1}, compared to 12.4 kJ mol{sup −1} for the first H{sub 2} molecule. Anharmonicity is found to be even more important when a second (and subsequent) H{sub 2} molecule is adsorbed; use of harmonic ZPEs results in significant error in the 0 K binding enthalpy. Probability density histograms reveal that the two H{sub 2} molecules are found at larger distance from the Li{sup +} ion and are more confinedmore » in the θ coordinate than in H{sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene. They also show that both H{sub 2} molecules are delocalized in the azimuthal coordinate, ϕ. That is, adding a second H{sub 2} molecule is insufficient to localize the wavefunction in ϕ. Two fragment-based (H{sub 2}){sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene PESs are developed. These use a modified Shepard interpolation for the Li{sup +}–benzene and H{sub 2}–Li{sup +}–benzene fragments, and either modified Shepard interpolation or a cubic spline to model the H{sub 2}–H{sub 2} interaction. Because of the neglect of three-body H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, Li{sup +} terms, both fragment PESs lead to overbinding of the second H{sub 2} molecule by 1.5 kJ mol{sup −1}. Probability density histograms, however, indicate that the wavefunctions for the two H{sub 2} molecules are effectively identical on the “full” and fragment PESs. This suggests that the 1.5 kJ mol{sup −1} error is systematic over the regions of configuration space explored by our simulations. Notwithstanding this, modified Shepard interpolation of the weak H{sub 2}–H{sub 2} interaction is problematic and we obtain more accurate results, at considerably lower computational cost, using a cubic spline interpolation. Indeed, the ZPE of the fragment-with-spline PES is identical, within error, to the ZPE of the full PES. This fragmentation scheme therefore provides an accurate and inexpensive method to study higher hydrogen loading in this and similar systems.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22493549
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 143; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ADSORPTION; BENZENE; BINDING ENERGY; CARBON; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIFFUSION; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; ENTHALPY; GROUND STATES; HYDROGEN; LITHIUM IONS; MOLECULES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; POTENTIAL ENERGY; POTENTIALS; SURFACES; THREE-BODY PROBLEM; WAVE FUNCTIONS