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Title: Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory beyond the Tamm-Dancoff approximation: Obtaining efficiency and accuracy with in situ optimised local orbitals

We present a solution of the full time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) eigenvalue equation in the linear response formalism exhibiting a linear-scaling computational complexity with system size, without relying on the simplifying Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The implementation relies on representing the occupied and unoccupied subspaces with two different sets of in situ optimised localised functions, yielding a very compact and efficient representation of the transition density matrix of the excitation with the accuracy associated with a systematic basis set. The TDDFT eigenvalue equation is solved using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm that is very memory-efficient. The algorithm is validated on a small test molecule and a good agreement with results obtained from standard quantum chemistry packages is found, with the preconditioner yielding a significant improvement in convergence rates. The method developed in this work is then used to reproduce experimental results of the absorption spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll in an organic solvent, where it is demonstrated that the TDA fails to reproduce the main features of the low energy spectrum, while the full TDDFT equation yields results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the need for explicitly including parts of the solvent into the TDDFT calculations is highlighted, making themore » treatment of large system sizes necessary that are well within reach of the capabilities of the algorithm introduced here. Finally, the linear-scaling properties of the algorithm are demonstrated by computing the lowest excitation energy of bacteriochlorophyll in solution. The largest systems considered in this work are of the same order of magnitude as a variety of widely studied pigment-protein complexes, opening up the possibility of studying their properties without having to resort to any semiclassical approximations to parts of the protein environment.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4]
  1. Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
  3. Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
  4. (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22493267
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 143; Journal Issue: 20; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; CHEMISTRY; COMPLEXES; CONVERGENCE; DENSITY FUNCTIONAL METHOD; DENSITY MATRIX; EIGENVALUES; ENERGY SPECTRA; EXCITATION; MOLECULES; ORGANIC SOLVENTS; PIGMENTS; PROTEINS; SEMICLASSICAL APPROXIMATION; TIME DEPENDENCE