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Title: A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{supmore » 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like carrier capture and emission in deep levels, and it is generally observed in disordered systems. The obtained Meyer-Neldel energy value, 15.19 meV, is very close to the value obtained in multicrystalline silicon samples contaminated with iron (13.65 meV), meaning that this energy value could be associated to the phonons energy in this kind of substrates.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1] ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3]
  1. Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
  2. Dept. de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
  3. (Spain)
  4. CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22493112
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 24; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ACTIVATION ENERGY; CAPTURE; CROSS SECTIONS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; EMISSION; ENERGY LEVELS; EXCITATION; IMPURITIES; ION IMPLANTATION; IRON; MEV RANGE; N-TYPE CONDUCTORS; PHONONS; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; SILICON; SPECTROSCOPY; TITANIUM; TITANIUM IONS