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Title: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE valuesmore » of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ; ;  [2] ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Dr. MS 1021, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1021 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)
  3. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, EME 102 Spokane St., Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22492895
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; DATA ANALYSIS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRON SPECTRA; GHZ RANGE 01-100; HYDROCHLORIC ACID; MHZ RANGE; NANOSTRUCTURES; POWDERS; SHIELDING; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY