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Title: In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO{sub 2} NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO{sub 2} NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO{sub 2} NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the mediummore » were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm{sup 2} levels of TiO{sub 2} NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO{sub 2} NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)
  2. European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Chemical assessment and Testing Unit, Via E. Fermi, 2749I-21027 Ispra (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22490686
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1667; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Nanoforum 2014, Rome (Italy), 22-25 Sep 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ADULTS; CONSUMER PRODUCTS; EUROPEAN UNION; FOOD; FOOD ADDITIVES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE; NANOPARTICLES; ORAL ADMINISTRATION; PIGMENTS; RATS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SMALL INTESTINE; SUSPENSIONS; TITANIUM OXIDES; TOXICITY