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Title: In-operando synchronous time-multiplexed O K-edge x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy of functioning tantalum oxide memristors

Memristors are receiving keen interest because of their potential varied applications and promising large-scale information storage capabilities. Tantalum oxide is a memristive material that has shown promise for high-performance nonvolatile computer memory. The microphysics has been elusive because of the small scale and subtle physical changes that accompany conductance switching. In this study, we probed the atomic composition, local chemistry, and electronic structure of functioning tantalum oxide memristors through spatially mapped O K-edge x-ray absorption. We developed a time-multiplexed spectromicroscopy technique to enhance the weak and possibly localized oxide modifications with spatial and spectral resolutions of <30 nm and 70 meV, respectively. During the initial stages of conductance switching of a micrometer sized crosspoint device, the spectral changes were uniform within the spatial resolution of our technique. When the device was further driven with millions of high voltage-pulse cycles, we observed lateral motion and separation of ∼100 nm-scale agglomerates of both oxygen interstitials and vacancies. We also demonstrate a unique capability of this technique by identifying the relaxation behavior in the material during electrical stimuli by identifying electric field driven changes with varying pulse widths. In addition, we show that changes to the material can be localized to a spatial region by modifyingmore » its topography or uniformity, as against spatially uniform changes observed here during memristive switching. The goal of this report is to introduce the capability of time-multiplexed x-ray spectromicroscopy in studying weak-signal transitions in inhomogeneous media through the example of the operation and temporal evolution of a memristor.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
  4. Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22489528
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; FUNCTIONS; INTERSTITIALS; OXYGEN; PULSES; RELAXATION; SIGNALS; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TANTALUM OXIDES; X RADIATION