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Title: Measurement of carbon condensates using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of the high explosive hexanitrostilbene

The dynamics of carbon condensation in detonating high explosives remains controversial. Detonation model validation requires data for processes occurring at nanometer length scales on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. A new detonation endstation has been commissioned to acquire and provide time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from detonating explosives. Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) was selected as the first to investigate due to its ease of initiation using exploding foils and flyers, vacuum compatibility, high thermal stability, and stoichiometric carbon abundance that produces high carbon condensate yields. The SAXS data during detonation, collected with 300 ns time resolution, provide unprecedented signal fidelity over a broad q-range. This fidelity permits the first analysis of both the Guinier and Porod/power-law regions of the scattering profile during detonation, which contains information about the size and morphology of the resultant carbon condensate nanoparticles. To bolster confidence in these data, the scattering angle and intensity were additionally cross-referenced with a separate, highly calibrated SAXS beamline. The data show that HNS produces carbon particles with a radius of gyration of 2.7 nm in less than 400 ns after the detonation front has passed, and this size and morphology are constant over the next several microseconds. These data directly contradict previous pioneeringmore » work on RDX/TNT mixtures and TATB, where observations indicate significant particle growth (50% or more) continues over several microseconds. The power-law slope is about −3, which is consistent with a complex disordered, irregular, or folded sp{sup 2} sub-arrangement within a relatively monodisperse structure possessing radius of gyration of 2.7 nm after the detonation of HNS.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
  2. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
  4. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22489445
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 24; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CARBON; CONDENSATES; EXPLOSIONS; MIXTURES; MORPHOLOGY; NANOPARTICLES; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; STOICHIOMETRY; TATB; TIME RESOLUTION; TNT; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; YIELDS