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Title: The solubility and site preference of Fe{sup 3+} in Li{sub 7−3x}Fe{sub x}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnets

A series of Fe{sup 3+}-bearing Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe{sup 3+} pfu could be incorporated in Li{sub 7−3x}Fe{sub x}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnet solid solutions. At Fe{sup 3+} concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe{sup 3+} contents lower than 0.52 Fe{sup 3+} pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a{sub 0}, for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a{sub 0}≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe{sup 3+}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO{sub 3} in syntheses with Fe{sup 3+} contents greater than 0.16 Fe{sup 3+} pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li{sub 7−3x}Fe{sub x}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnets, as determined by electron microprobemore » (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li{sub 6.89}Fe{sub 0.03}La{sub 3.05}Zr{sub 2.01}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 6.66}Fe{sub 0.06}La{sub 3.06}Zr{sub 2.01}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 6.54}Fe{sub 0.12}La{sub 3.01}Zr{sub 1.98}O{sub 12}, and Li{sub 6.19}Fe{sub 0.19}La{sub 3.02}Zr{sub 2.04}O{sub 12}. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li{sub 6.54}Fe{sub 0.12}La{sub 3.01}Zr{sub 1.98}O{sub 12} garnet indicates that most Fe{sup 3+} occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe{sup 3+} in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li{sub 6.54}Fe{sub 0.12}La{sub 3.01}Zr{sub 1.98}O{sub 12} this Fe{sup 3+} has a distorted 4-fold coordination. - Graphical abstract: Cubic nominally Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZO) garnet is a promising candidate to be used as a solid electrolyte in Li-ion batteries. A series of Fe{sup 3+}-bearing LLZO garnets was synthesized and characterized compositionally and structurally. {sup 57}Mössbauer measurements were made to determine where Fe is incorporated in the crystal structure. X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, ICP-OES and {sup 57}Mössbauer measurements are needed to obtain a full description of the synthetic products, some of which contain small amounts of nano- or poorly crystalline FeLaO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • A series of Fe{sup 3+}-bearing Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZO) garnets was synthesized and characterized compositionally and structurally. • {sup 57}Mössbauer measurements were made to determine where Fe is incorporated in the crystal structure. • Most Fe{sup 3+} substitutes for Li{sup +} in LLZO at the 24d and 96h sites in the cubic phase (Ia-3d). • No more than about 0.25 Fe{sup 3+} pfu can be incorporated into the LLZO garnet structure. • X-ray powder diffractions measurements indicate the presence of both cubic and tetragonal garnets phases in some syntheses. • The probable presence of small amounts of poorly or nano-crystalline FeLaO3 can only be identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ; ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)
  2. Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, Faculty of Geo- and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486816
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 230; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ELECTRON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; GARNETS; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; IRON 57; IRON IONS; LANTHANUM COMPOUNDS; LATTICE PARAMETERS; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; LITHIUM IONS; NANOSTRUCTURES; SOLID ELECTROLYTES; SOLID SOLUTIONS; SYNTHESIS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZIRCONATES