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Title: Dopant activation in Sn-doped Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Doping activity in both beta-phase (β-) and amorphous (a-) Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn) is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A single crystal of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn grown using edge-defined film-fed growth at 1725 °C is compared with amorphous Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn films deposited at low temperature (<300 °C). Our XAS analyses indicate that activated Sn dopant atoms in conductive single crystal β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn are present as Sn{sup 4+}, preferentially substituting for Ga at the octahedral site, as predicted by theoretical calculations. In contrast, inactive Sn atoms in resistive a-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn are present in either +2 or +4 charge states depending on growth conditions. These observations suggest the importance of growing Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn at high temperature to obtain a crystalline phase and controlling the oxidation state of Sn during growth to achieve dopant activation.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [2] ;  [4] ; ;  [5] ; ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
  3. (United States)
  4. PVcomB, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
  5. Department of Chemistry Materials Science and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
  6. Physics Department and CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)
  7. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486270
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 25; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ATOMS; CHARGE STATES; DEPOSITS; DOPED MATERIALS; FILMS; GALLIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; VALENCE; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY