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Title: Electric-field-induced strain contributions in morphotropic phase boundary composition of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} during poling

The microscopic contributions to the electric-field-induced macroscopic strain in a morphotropic 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})−0.07(BaTiO{sub 3}) with a mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal structure have been quantified using full pattern Rietveld refinement of in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction data. The analysis methodology allows a quantification of all strain mechanisms for each phase in a morphotropic composition and is applicable to use in a wide variety of piezoelectric compositions. It is shown that during the poling of this material 24%, 44%, and 32% of the total macroscopic strain is generated from lattice strain, domain switching, and phase transformation strains, respectively. The results also suggest that the tetragonal phase contributes the most to extrinsic domain switching strain, whereas the lattice strain primarily stems from the rhombohedral phase. The analysis also suggests that almost 32% of the total strain is lost or is a one-time effect due to the irreversible nature of the electric-field-induced phase transformation in the current composition. This information is relevant to on-going compositional development strategies to harness the electric-field-induced phase transformation strain of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric materials for actuator applications.
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)
  2. (Germany)
  3. (Australia)
  4. Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)
  5. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486241
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 24; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ACTUATORS; CURRENTS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; MATERIALS; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; PIEZOELECTRICITY; STRAINS; TITANATES; TITANIUM OXIDES; TRIGONAL LATTICES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION