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Title: Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C + In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.
Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
  2. Nuclear Science and Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)
  3. KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
  4. Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)
  5. Applied Physics, School Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486122
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 21; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ABUNDANCE; DENSITY FUNCTIONAL METHOD; DOPED MATERIALS; METALS; OXIDES; PERFORMANCE; PRECIPITATION; SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; SIMULATION; STRAINS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY