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Title: Enhancement of the photo conversion efficiencies in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} solar cells fabricated by two-step sulfurization process

Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSS) absorber layers were fabricated by using a modified two-stage sputter and a sequential selenization/sulfurization method, and the sulfurization process is changed from one-step to two-step. The two-step sulfurization was controlled with two different H{sub 2}S gas concentrations during the sulfurization treatment. This two-step process yielded remarkable improvements in the efficiency (+0.7%), open circuit voltage (+14 mV), short circuit current (+0.23 mA/cm{sup 2}), and fill factor (+0.21%) of a CIGSS device with 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} in size, owing to the good passivation at the grain boundary surface, uniform material composition among the grain boundaries, and modified depth profile of Ga and S. The deterioration of the P/N junction quality was prevented by the optimized S content in the CIGSS absorber layer. The effects of the passivation quality at the grain boundary surface, the material uniformity, the compositional depth profiles, the microstructure, and the electrical characteristics were examined by Kelvin probe force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and current-voltage curves, respectively. The two-step sulfurization process is experimentally found to be useful for obtaining good surface conditions and, enhancing the efficiency, for the mass production of large CIGSS modules.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Photovoltaic Development Team, Energy Storage Business Division, Samsung SDI, Cheonan-si 331-300 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Department of Physics and New and Renewable Energy Research Center, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)
  3. KUKIST Green School, Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486069
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 19; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DEPTH; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOLAR CELLS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; YIELDS