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Title: Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment usingmore » organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in Spain, with 638 cases and 13,188 controls. • We found excess risk near industries (especially, production of metals and glass). • We found excess risk near urban areas with more than 10,000 inhabitants. • We found excess risk near industries releasing As, Cd, Cr, Ni, PAHS, and benzene.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;
  1. Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain)
  2. (CIBERESP) (Spain)
  3. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain)
  4. (Spain)
  5. Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain)
  6. (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain)
  7. Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
  8. Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22483308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 140; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; BENZENE; CHILDREN; CONTROL; HAZARDS; HOUSES; INDUSTRY; LEUKEMIA; METALS; ORGANIC SOLVENTS; PHENOLS; POLLUTANTS; POLLUTION SOURCES; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; SPAIN; SURFACE TREATMENTS; URBAN AREAS