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Title: Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. Thesemore » results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [3] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;
  1. FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain)
  2. (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)
  3. Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)
  4. (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)
  5. (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)
  6. (Spain)
  7. Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22483289
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 138; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ABUNDANCE; BLOOD; CONCENTRATION RATIO; GEOMETRY; IODINE; MERCURY; PREGNANCY; PRENATAL EXPOSURE; PUBLIC HEALTH; SPAIN; THYROID; THYROXINE; TRIIODOTHYRONINE; TSH; WOMEN