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Title: Development of an in situ temperature stage for synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy

In situ characterization of micro- and nanoscale defects in polycrystalline thin-film materials is required to elucidate the physics governing defect formation and evolution during photovoltaic device fabrication and operation. X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy is particularly well-suited to study defects in compound semiconductors, as it has a large information depth appropriate to study thick and complex materials, is sensitive to trace amounts of atomic species, and provides quantitative elemental information, non-destructively. Current in situ methods using this technique typically require extensive sample preparation. In this work, we design and build an in situ temperature stage to study defect kinetics in thin-film solar cells under actual processing conditions, requiring minimal sample preparation. Careful selection of construction materials also enables controlled non-oxidizing atmospheres inside the sample chamber such as H{sub 2}Se and H{sub 2}S. Temperature ramp rates of up to 300 °C/min are achieved, with a maximum sample temperature of 600 °C. As a case study, we use the stage for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-films and demonstrate predictable sample thermal drift for temperatures 25–400 °C, allowing features on the order of the resolution of the measurement technique (125 nm) to be tracked while heating. The stage enables previously unattainable inmore » situ studies of nanoscale defect kinetics under industrially relevant processing conditions, allowing a deeper understanding of the relationship between material processing parameters, materials properties, and device performance.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ; ;  [2] ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
  2. School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)
  3. Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22482603
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ATMOSPHERES; DESIGN; FABRICATION; FLUORESCENCE; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; NANOSTRUCTURES; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; POLYCRYSTALS; RESOLUTION; SAMPLE PREPARATION; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SOLAR CELLS; SYNCHROTRONS; THIN FILMS; TRACE AMOUNTS; X RADIATION