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Title: Effect of Na presence during CuInSe{sub 2} growth on stacking fault annihilation and electronic properties

While presence of Na is essential for the performance of high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells, the reasons why addition of Na by post-deposition treatment is superior to pre-deposition Na supply—particularly at low growth temperatures—are not yet fully understood. Here, we show by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy that Na impedes annihilation of stacking faults during the Cu-poor/Cu-rich transition of low temperature 3-stage co-evaporation and prevents Cu homogeneity on a microscopic level. Lower charge carrier mobilities are found by optical pump terahertz probe spectroscopy for samples with remaining high stacking fault density, indicating a detrimental effect on electronic properties if Na is present during growth.
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany)
  2. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22482243
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 15; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ANNIHILATION; CHARGE CARRIERS; DEPOSITION; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; EVAPORATION; MOBILITY; PERFORMANCE; SOLAR CELLS; SPECTROSCOPY; STACKING FAULTS; THIN FILMS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION