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Title: Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define themore » appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [2]
  1. The Nature Conservancy, 415 Alta Vista Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)
  2. The Nature Conservancy, 117 East Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80524 (United States)
  3. The Natural Capital Project, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22479758
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Impact Assessment Review; Journal Volume: 55; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; ECOSYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; LAND USE; MITIGATION; SPECIES DIVERSITY