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Title: Investigation of blister formation in sputtered Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorbers for thin film solar cells

Blister formation in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films sputtered from a quaternary compound target is investigated. While the thin film structure, composition, and substrate material are not correlated to the blister formation, a strong link between sputtering gas entrapment, in this case argon, and blistering effect is found. It is shown that argon is trapped in the film during sputtering and migrates to locally form blisters during the high temperature annealing. Blister formation in CZTS absorbers is detrimental for thin film solar cell fabrication causing partial peeling of the absorber layer and potential shunt paths in the complete device. Reduced sputtering gas entrapment, and blister formation, is seen for higher sputtering pressure, higher substrate temperature, and change of sputtering gas to larger atoms. This is all in accordance with previous publications on blister formation caused by sputtering gas entrapment in other materials.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Midsummer AB, Elektronikhöjden 6, SE-17543 Järfälla, Sweden and Solid State Electronics, Angström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
  2. Midsummer AB, Elektronikhöjden 6, SE-17543 Järfälla (Sweden)
  3. Solid State Electronics, Angström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22479721
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANNEALING; ARGON; ATOMS; BLISTERS; FABRICATION; LAYERS; QUATERNARY ALLOY SYSTEMS; QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS; SOLAR CELLS; SPUTTERING; SUBSTRATES; THIN FILMS