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Title: Low temperature temporal and spatial atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} films

Titanium dioxide films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a titanium precursor and water, ozone, or oxygen plasma as coreactants. Low temperatures (80–120 °C) were used to grow moisture barrier TiO{sub 2} films on polyethylene naphthalate. The maximum growth per cycle for water, ozone, and oxygen plasma processes were 0.33, 0.12, and 0.56 Å/cycle, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the layers and the origin of the carbon contamination was studied by deconvoluting carbon C1s peaks. In plasma-assisted ALD, the film properties were dependent on the energy dose supplied by the plasma. TiO{sub 2} films were also successfully deposited by using a spatial ALD (SALD) system based on the results from the temporal ALD. Similar properties were measured compared to the temporal ALD deposited TiO{sub 2}, but the deposition time could be reduced using SALD. The TiO{sub 2} films deposited by plasma-assisted ALD showed better moisture barrier properties than the layers deposited by thermal processes. Water vapor transmission rate values lower than 5 × 10{sup −4} g day{sup −1} m{sup −2} (38 °C and 90% RH) was measured for 20 nm of TiO{sub 2} film deposited by plasma-assisted ALD.
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4]
  1. ASTRaL Group, Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland)
  2. Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)
  3. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  4. R&D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22479709
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DEPOSITION; DEPOSITS; FILMS; MOISTURE; PLASMA; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; TITANIUM; TITANIUM OXIDES; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY