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Title: Influence of gradual cobalt substitution on lithium nickel phosphate nano-scale composites for high voltage applications

The carbon-free LiNiPO{sub 4} and cobalt doped LiNi{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C (x = 0.0–1.0) were synthesized and investigated for high voltage applications (> 4 V) for Li-ion batteries. Nano-scale composites were prepared by handy sol–gel approach using citric acid under slightly reductive gas atmosphere (Ar-H{sub 2}, 85:15%). Structural and morphological characteristics of the powders were revealed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Except for a small impurity phase (Ni{sub 3}P), phase pure samples crystallized in the olivine-lattice structure with a linear relationship between lattice parameters (a, b and c) and chemical composition. The FE-SEM images proved that LiNiPO{sub 4}/C particles (50–80 nm) did not agglomerate, and showed that as the cobalt content was higher agglomeration had increased. The electrochemical properties of all electrodes were investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements. Substitution of Ni{sup 2} {sup +} by Co{sup 2} {sup +} caused higher electronic conductivities and showed more effective Li{sup +} ion mobility. When the cobalt content is 100%, the capacity reached to a higher level (146.2 mA h g{sup −} {sup 1}) and good capacity retention of 85.1% at the end of the 60 cyclesmore » was observed. The cycling voltammogram (CV) revealed that LiCoPO{sub 4}/C electrode improved the electrochemical properties. The Ni{sup 3} {sup +}–Ni{sup 2} {sup +} redox couple was not observed for carbon free LiNiPO{sub 4}. Nevertheless, it was observed that carbon coated LiNiPO{sub 4} sample exhibits a significant oxidation (5.26 V)–reduction (5.08 V) peaks. With this study, characteristics of the LiNi{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C series were deeply evaluated and discussed. - Highlights: • Structural, morphological and electrochemical effects of Co doped LiNi{sub 1−} {sub x}Co{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C electrodes are investigated. • Cheap, effective and simple sol–gel approach is used. • After the 60th cycle, capacity retention is almost 87% for LiCoPO{sub 4}/C electrode. • LiNiPO{sub 4}/C sample exhibits a distinctive oxidation (5.26 V)–reduction (5.08 V) peaks.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Kafkas University, Atatürk Vocational School of Healthcare, 36100 Kars (Turkey)
  2. Sakarya University, Department of Chemistry, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)
  3. Sakarya University, Arifiye Vocational School, 54580 Sakarya (Turkey)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476131
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 106; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARBON; COBALT ADDITIONS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; FIELD EMISSION; ION MOBILITY; LATTICE PARAMETERS; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; LITHIUM IONS; NICKEL COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION; PHOSPHATES; PLASMA; POWDERS; RESOLUTION; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOL-GEL PROCESS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION