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Title: Interfacial microstructure and properties of copper clad steel produced using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding

A preliminary study compares the feasibility and microstructures of pure copper claddings produced on a pressure vessel A516 Gr. 70 steel plate, using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding. A combination of optical and scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the grain structures in both the copper cladding and heat affected zone in the steel near the fusion line. The friction stir welding technique produces copper cladding with a grain size of around 25 μm, and no evidence of liquid copper penetration into the steel. The gas metal arc welding of copper cladding exhibits grain sizes over 1 mm, and with surface microcracks as well as penetration of liquid copper up to 50 μm into the steel substrate. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that metallurgical bonding is produced in both processes. Increased diffusion of Mn and Si into the copper cladding occurs when using gas metal arc welding, although some nano-pores were detected in the FSW joint interface. - Highlights: • Cladding of steel with pure copper is possible using either FSW or GMAW. • The FSW yielded a finer grain structure in the copper, with no evidence of cracking. • The FSW joint contains some evidence ofmore » nano-pores at the interface of the steel/copper. • Copper cladding by GMAW contained surface cracks attributed to high thermal stresses. • The steel adjacent to the fusion line maintained a hardness value below 248 HV.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada)
  2. Mechanical Systems Engineering, Conestoga College, Kitchener (Canada)
  3. Welding Engineering Technology, Conestoga College, Kitchener (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476093
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 104; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CLADDING; COPPER; CRACKING; CRACKS; DIFFUSION; FRICTION; GAS METAL-ARC WELDING; GRAIN SIZE; HARDNESS; HEAT AFFECTED ZONE; INTERFACES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; STEELS; SUBSTRATES; SURFACES; THERMAL STRESSES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY