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Title: Synthesis and characterization of bulk Cu{sub 2}ZnSnX{sub 4} (X: S, Se) via thermodynamically supported mechano-chemical process

Materials with the general formula, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnX{sub 4} (CZTX; X: Group 16 elements), with X being S/Se, have been receiving considerable attention due to their utility as an absorber layer in solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper reports on the synthesis of CZTSe and CZTS nanocrystalline powders at low temperatures, starting from elemental metal and chalcogen powders, via the low cost, scalable technique of ball milling. The prepared samples were well characterized using the different characterization tools. XRD, Raman, SEM and TEM studies confirm the formation of single-phase, stoichiometric, nano-crystalline kesterite CZTS and CZTSe powders. The low temperature phase selection of the complex quaternary compound in this system is seen as a direct consequence of the thermodynamic facilitation, coupled with the capability of mechano-chemical synthesis to aid in overcoming kinetic constraints. The optical bandgap of the various samples of CZTS was observed in the range of 1.4–1.6 eV and corresponding values for CZTSe was observed to be in the range of 1.08–1.18 eV. Our work provides a pathway for developing cheap, scalable, and ink-based techniques for low cost solar PV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A scalable route for synthesis of near phase pure CZTS/Se nano-crystals has beenmore » demonstrated. • Stoichiometric CZTS and CZTSe were synthesized via mechano-chemical synthesis route. • Synthesis at near room temperature is supported by thermodynamic calculations.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476083
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 103; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHALCOGENIDES; COPPER COMPOUNDS; CRYSTALS; LAYERS; MILLING; NANOSTRUCTURES; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; POWDERS; QUATERNARY ALLOY SYSTEMS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SELENIUM COMPOUNDS; STOICHIOMETRY; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SYNTHESIS; TIN COMPOUNDS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZINC COMPOUNDS