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Title: Utilizing maleic acid as a novel fuel for synthesis of PbFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoceramics via sol–gel auto-combustion route

PbFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanostructures were prepared in an aqueous solution by the sol–gel auto-combustion method using Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as starting materials and various carboxylic acids, including oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and maleic acid as fuel and reducing and capping agents. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X- ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effect of carboxylic acid type, Pb{sup +} {sup 2} to carboxylic acid molar ratio, and calcination temperature was investigated on the morphology of the products and several experiments were carried out to obtain the optimal reaction conditions. It was found that the phase and the morphology of the products are influenced by the investigated parameters. Furthermore, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to study the magnetic properties of PbFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PbFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoceramics were synthesized from Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} via the sol–gel auto combustion method. • The maleic acid can be instead of common capping agent and fuel in auto-combustion sol–gel. • The synthesized PbFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} is a hard magnetic material. • The specific saturation magnetization and coercivity aremore » 27 emu/g and 1900 Oe, respectively.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476081
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 103; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; FERRITES; IRON NITRATES; LEAD COMPOUNDS; LEAD NITRATES; MAGNETIC MATERIALS; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MAGNETIZATION; MALEIC ACID; MALONIC ACID; NANOSTRUCTURES; OXALIC ACID; SATURATION; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOL-GEL PROCESS; SPECTROSCOPY; SUCCINIC ACID; SYNTHESIS; VIBRATING SAMPLE MAGNETOMETERS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION