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Title: Role of intensive milling in the processing of barium ferrite/magnetite/iron hybrid magnetic nano-composites via partial reduction of barium ferrite

In this research a mixture of barium ferrite and graphite was milled for different periods of time and then heat treated at different temperatures. The effects of milling time and heat treatment temperature on the phase composition, thermal behavior, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed that BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites form after a 20 h milling due to the partial reduction of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. High resolution transmission electron microscope images of a 40 h milled sample showed agglomerated structure consisting of nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 30 nm. Thermal analysis of the samples via differential thermal analysis indicated that for un-milled samples, heat treatment up to 900 °C did not result in α-Fe formation, while for a 20 h milled sample heat treatment at 700 °C resulted in reduction process progress to the formation of α-Fe. Wustite was disappeared in an X-ray diffraction pattern of a heat treated sample at 850 °C, by increasing the milling time from 20 to 40 h. By increasing the milling time, the structure ofmore » heat treated samples becomes magnetically softer due to an increase in saturation magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Saturation magnetization and coercivity of a sample milled for 20 h and heat treated at 850 °C were 126.3 emu/g and 149.5 Oe which by increasing the milling time to 40 h, alter to 169.1 emu/g and 24.3 Oe, respectively. High coercivity values of milled and heat treated samples were attributed to the nano-scale formed iron particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Barium ferrite and graphite were treated mechano-thermally. • Increasing milling time increases reduction progress after heat treatment. • Composites including iron nano-crystals forms by milling and heat treatment. • Shorter milling time results in higher H{sub C} of the milled and heat treated samples.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box: 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  2. (Netherlands)
  3. School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 14395-553, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  4. Delft Chem Tech, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476052
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 101; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; AFTER-HEAT; BARIUM COMPOUNDS; CRYSTALS; DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS; FERRITES; GRAPHITE; HEAT TREATMENTS; IRON; IRON OXIDES; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MAGNETITE; MAGNETIZATION; MILLING; NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; RESOLUTION; SATURATION; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VIBRATING SAMPLE MAGNETOMETERS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION