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Title: Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe{sub 2}C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement ismore » not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, instead of Fe{sub 2}C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of carbide precipitation varies with temperature of tempering. • Mostly iron rich Fe{sub 2}C carbides are present in the embrittlement temperature range. • With the precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, recovery from the embrittlement begins.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)
  2. Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476034
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 100; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; AUSTENITE; CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; ELECTRON SCANNING; FIELD EMISSION; HARDNESS; IRON; IRON CARBIDES; MARTENSITE; MARTENSITIC STEELS; PRECIPITATION; STAINLESS STEELS; TEMPERING; TRANSITION TEMPERATURE; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; WEAR RESISTANCE; X-RAY DIFFRACTION