skip to main content

SciTech ConnectSciTech Connect

Title: Effects of W on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C–(0–10)wt.%W irons

Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C irons containing (0–10)wt.%W with the Cr/C ratio about 10 were studied and related to their hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the irons with 1 to 10 wt.%W addition was hypereutectic containing large primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, whereas the reference iron without W addition was hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. The volume fractions of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and the total carbides increased, but that of eutectic carbides decreased with increasing the W content of the irons. W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. At about 4 wt.%W, two eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C were observed together with primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. At 10 wt.%W, multiple carbides including primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, fish-bone M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub x}C where x = 3 or less has not been found due possibly to the high M/C ratio in the studied irons. Wmore » distribution to all carbides has been determined increasing from ca. 0.3 to 0.8 in mass fraction as the W content in the irons was increased. W addition led to an increase in Vickers macro-hardness of the irons up to 671 kgf/(mm){sup 2} (HV30/15) obtained from the iron with 10 wt.%W. The formation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and aggregates of M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the as-cast irons with W addition. - Highlights: • W addition at 1 up to 10 wt.%W to Fe–28Cr–2.6C produced “hypereutectic” structure. • W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} has higher Fe/Cr and W/Cr atm% ratios than those in M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. • Si content and high W content over about 11 atm% are characteristics of M{sub 6}C. • Primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and aggregates of M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} increased the alloy macro-hardness.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)
  2. National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)
  3. Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
  4. Department of Industrial Chemistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476005
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 99; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AUSTENITE; CARBIDES; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CAST IRON; CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS; COOLING; DISTRIBUTION; EUTECTICS; MARTENSITE; MICROSTRUCTURE; SAND; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SKELETON; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TUNGSTEN COMPOUNDS; VICKERS HARDNESS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY