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Title: Remarkably improved field emission of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by annealing atmosphere engineering

Highlights: • TNAs were prepared by anodization and annealed in different atmospheres. • The crystal structure and electronic properties of the prepared TNAs were investigated. • The field emission of TNAs was highly dependent on annealing atmosphere. • A low turn-on of 2.44 V/μm was obtained for TNAs annealed in H{sub 2} atmosphere. - Abstract: Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) were prepared by anodization, and followed by annealing in the atmospheres of Air, Vacuum, Ar, and H{sub 2}. The effect of annealing atmosphere on the crystal structure, composition, and electronic properties of TNAs were systematically investigated. Raman and EDS results indicated that the TNAs annealed in anaerobic atmospheres contained more oxygen vacancies, which result in the substantially improved electron transport properties and reduced work function. Moreover, it was found that the FE properties of TNAs were highly dependent on the annealing atmosphere. By engineering the annealing atmosphere, the turn-on field as low as 2.44 V/μm can be obtained from TNAs annealed in H{sub 2}, which was much lower than the value of 18.23 V/μm from the TNAs annealed in the commonly used atmosphere of Air. Our work suggests an instructive and attractive way to fabricate high performance TNAsmore » field emitters.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22475983
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 70; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ANNEALING; ANODIZATION; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; FIELD EMISSION; HYDROGEN; NANOTUBES; OXYGEN; PERFORMANCE; TITANIUM OXIDES; VACANCIES; WORK FUNCTIONS