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Title: Electrical characterization of grain boundaries of CZTS thin films using conductive atomic force microscopy techniques

Graphical abstract: Experimental setup for conducting AFM (C-AFM). - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin film was grown by reactive co-sputtering. • The electronic properties were probed using conducting atomic force microscope, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. • C-AFM current flow mainly through grain boundaries rather than grain interiors. • SKPM indicated higher potential along the GBs compared to grain interiors. • The SCM explains that charge separation takes place at the interface of grain and grain boundary. - Abstract: Electrical characterization of grain boundaries (GB) of Cu-deficient CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) thin films was done using atomic force microscopic (AFM) techniques like Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Absorbance spectroscopy was done for optical band gap calculations and Raman, XRD and EDS for structural and compositional characterization. Hall measurements were done for estimation of carrier mobility. CAFM and KPFM measurements showed that the currents flow mainly through grain boundaries (GB) rather than grain interiors. SCM results showed that charge separation mainly occurs at the interface of grain and grain boundaries and not all along the grain boundaries.
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, New Delhi 110012 (India)
  2. Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22475920
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 70; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CAPACITANCE; CARRIER MOBILITY; COPPER; COPPER COMPOUNDS; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; INTERFACES; SPECTROSCOPY; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SURFACE PROPERTIES; THIN FILMS; TIN COMPOUNDS; TIN SULFIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZINC; ZINC COMPOUNDS