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Title: The preparation and characterization of iron fluorides polymorphs FeF{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O and β-FeF{sub 3}∙3H{sub 2}O as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

Graphical abstract: Better rate capability and cycling performance were observed for β-FeF{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O/C prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel mechano-chemical preparation method. • The use of NH{sub 4}F as starting material. • Better electro-chemical performance in the case of β-FeF{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O/C. - Abstract: Two kinds of iron fluorides, FeF{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O and β-FeF{sub 3}∙3H{sub 2}O, have been synthesized by different chemical routes using Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}F as precursors and investigated as cathode materials for secondary lithium batteries. β-FeF{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O was obtained via a mechano-chemical process and FeF{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O was obtained by a precipitation reaction from ethanol solution. To further improve their electrochemical properties, a ball milling process with carbon has been used to form composites. The fluorides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results showed that the as-prepared β-FeF{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O/C exhibited better rate performance and cycling stability. It exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 199.6 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 20 mA g{sup −1} in a voltage range of 1.8–4.5 V and still reserved a discharge capacity of about 146.5 mA h g{supmore » −1} after 10 cycles. Only a capacity loss of 15 mA h g{sup −1} and 7 mA h g{sup −1} was observed when the current density was at 40 mA g{sup −1} and 80 mA g{sup −1}, respectively.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22475730
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 64; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMMONIUM FLUORIDES; CAPACITY; CHEMICAL PREPARATION; CURRENT DENSITY; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; INFRARED SPECTRA; IRON FLUORIDES; IRON NITRATES; LITHIUM IONS; PERFORMANCE; SPECTROSCOPY; THERMAL ANALYSIS; VOLTAMETRY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION