skip to main content

Title: Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increasesmore » deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)
  2. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States)
  3. Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22465765
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 285; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CALCIUM; FOOD; HOMEOSTASIS; METABOLISM; METABOLITES; MYCOTOXINS; NAD; OXIDASES; OXIDATION; OXIDIZERS; RISK ASSESSMENT; STRESSES; TOXICITY