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Title: In vitro biotransformation of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) in human liver and serum

Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is a plasticizer present in indoor dust, reaching levels of several micrograms per gram. Such levels could lead to significant daily exposure of adults and children. Currently, no toxicokinetic data are available to estimate TBOEP clearance in humans after uptake and therefore, one objective of this study was to investigate intrinsic clearance of TBOEP by human liver microsome (HLM) and serum enzymes. Another objective was to generate information to identify and prioritize several metabolites of TBOEP for investigation of human exposure by biomonitoring. 1D and 2D-NMR methodologies were successfully applied on a mixture of the metabolites to confirm the structure of 3-HO-TBOEP (bis(2-butoxyethyl) 3-hydroxyl-2-butoxyethyl phosphate) and to tentatively assign structures to 1-HO-TBOEP and 2-HO-TBOEP. HO-TBOEP isomers and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) hydroxyethyl phosphate (BBOEHEP) were further monitored by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Rates of formation of BBOEHEP and HO-TBOEP metabolites by liver enzymes were best described by the Michaelis–Menten model. Apparent K{sub m} values for BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomer formation were 152, 197 and 148 μM, respectively. Apparent V{sub max} values for the formation of BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and the sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomers were 2560, 643, and 254 pmol/min/mg protein,more » respectively. No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum enzymes. Our findings indicate that intrinsic clearance of TBOEP is mainly catalyzed by oxidative enzymes in the liver and that its major in vitro metabolite is BBOEHEP. These findings can be applied in human biomonitoring studies and risk assessment. - Highlights: • First steps in the elucidation of TBOEP toxicokinetics • Quantification of TBOEP metabolites in human serum and liver microsomes • No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum enzymes. • Oxidative dealkylation to BBOEHEP was likely the major metabolic pathway. • 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR were used to tentatively assign structures of HO-TBOEP isomers.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Toxicological Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium)
  2. Natural Products & Food Research and Analysis (NatuRA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22465741
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 284; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS; CLEARANCE; DATA; DUSTS; ENZYMES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; IN VITRO; ISOMERS; LIQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY; LIVER; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; METABOLISM; METABOLITES; MICROSOMES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; PHOSPHATES; PLASTICIZERS; RISK ASSESSMENT; UPTAKE