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Title: Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the earlymore » born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner. • The nicotine-induced secondary motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors can occur independent of any muscle fiber alterations. • Nicotine exposure primarily affects dorsal projecting secondary motoneurons axons. • Nicotine-induced primary motoneuron axon pathfinding errors can influence secondary motoneuron axon morphology.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)
  2. Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States)
  3. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22465724
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 284; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACETYLCHOLINE; ANTIBODIES; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DOSES; ERRORS; FERTILIZATION; FLUORESCENCE; MORPHOLOGY; MUSCLES; MUTANTS; NERVE CELLS; NICOTINE; POTATOES; RECEPTORS; SPINAL CORD